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A Closer Look at Infertility

  • July 22,2020
  • 5 Min Read
A Closer Look at Infertility

Infertility is a disorder of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

Nearly 30 million couples in India suffer from infertility.

Top causes of Infertility in men 

A history of having mumps

Testicular injury

Exposure to chemicals or toxins

Acute illness or prolonged fever

Drugs (marijuana, opiods, cimetidine, corticosteroids, methotrexate, antineoplastics drugs) or alcohol use

Use of anabolic steroids

Undescended testis

Hormonal imbalance

Klinefelter Syndrome

Top causes of Infertility in Women 

Blocked fallopian tubes due to sexually transmitted diseases

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), which can interfere with ova release

Uterine fibroids


Autoimmune disorders, which produce antibodies against fetal tissues



Fluctuating or diminished hormone levels

Eating disorders

Obesity – increased Body Mass Index (BMI) has been associated with infertility and morbidity during pregnancy

Gluten intolerance (celiac disease)

Other leading factors of infertility that are common for both men and women:


Multiple Partners

Toxicity of Food

Drug use

Excessive Alcohol Drinking

Smoking or Delayed Marriage

Couples should undergo fertility testing as 30% of the time males are the sole cause of fertility problems.


Infertility tests are done to help find out why a woman cannot become pregnant. The tests help find whether the problem is with the man, the woman, or both. Tests usually include a physical exam, semen analysis, blood tests, and special procedures.

Fertility tests for women

Pelvic Ultrasound to discover abnormalities with the uterus, fallopian tubes and/or ovaries. Sonography can show evidence of pelvic scarring

PAP Smear Test

Rubella Antibody Test

Test for Chlamydia trachomatis

Test for Chlamydia trachomatis

Blood test includes day 3

FHS, LH, Prolactin


Testosterone (Free and Total)


Anti-Mullerian Hormone

Free T3, free T4, and TSH


Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) that evaluates the condition of the uterus and fallopian tubes.

Further specialized tests like:


TB Culture

GeneXpert TB test

Genetic testing (Chromosomal Karyotype)

Procedures such as endometrial biopsy, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy

Fertility tests for men

Semen analysis to check for abnormalities in the number of sperms (concentration), motility (movement) and morphology (shape)

Test for Chlamydia trachomatis which, in addition to being a known cause of infertility in women, can also affect sperm function

Blood Tests include:

Follicle stimulating Hormone (FHS)

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)


Testosterone (Free and Total)

Estradiol and SHBG

Transrectal and Scrotal Ultrasound is done to look for evidence of conditions such as retrograde ejaculation and ejaculatory duct obstruction

Depending on your history and test results, further specialized tests are recommended in certain cases like GeneXpert TB test, Genetic testing (Chromosomal Karyotype), AFB culture, Testicular biopsy (to tell if sperms production is normal)

Increase your chances of getting pregnant by:

Avoid extreme weight loss or gain

Exercise moderately

Quit Smoking

Limit Caffeine

Limit alcohol

Tips to maintain healthy sperm count:

Quit smoking

Limit alcohol

Exercise regularly

Avoid high temperatures and exposure to industrial or environmental toxins


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